Glossary

  • A
  • Access to information
    The right by law — often through freedom of information legislation (acts or laws) — to access key facts and data from the government and any public body. Budgets, project approvals and evaluations are typically published although citizens can petition for more materials to be released. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Accountability
    The concept that individuals, agencies and organisations (public, private and civil society) are held responsible for executing their powers properly. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Asset recovery
    The legal process of a country, government and/or its citizens to recover state resources stolen through corruption by current and past regimes, their families and political allies, or foreign actors. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Audit
    An internal or external examination of an organisation’s accounts, processes, functions and performance to produce an independent and credible assessment of their compliance with applicable laws, regulations and audits. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • B
  • Bid rotation
    Participants in a bid rigging scheme often rotate winning bids by geographic areas, by type of job or by time to give each member a chance to share in the spoils. REFERENCES IACRC, 2015, Collusive bidding schemes, Guide to Combating Corruption & Fraud in Development Projects, International Anti-corruption Resource Center (IACRC), http://guide.iacrc.org/potential-scheme-collusive-bidding/, accessed 15.10.2015
  • Bid suppression
    For bid rigging schemes to succeed, group members must prevent outside companies from bidding. This can be accomplished by paying off an interloper or by more forceful measures, such as threats or violence. REFERENCES IACRC, 2015, Collusive bidding schemes, Guide to Combating Corruption & Fraud in Development Projects, International Anti-corruption Resource Center (IACRC), http://guide.iacrc.org/potential-scheme-collusive-bidding/, accessed 15.10.2015
  • Bidder
    The organisation that applies for a tendered contract. In the setup assumed in the toolbox, bidders can be SMEs.
  • Bidding
    Refers to an organization’s process of applying for a tendered contract. It includes the bidder’s submission of a bid to a project owner with all necessary information on prices, quantity, quality, time etc. of the intended product or service delivery. In this toolbox’s context, SMEs are bidding on contracts tendered by water utilities or public institutions. This process is sensitive to issues of integrity as it involves interactions among competing bidders and between competing bidders and the project owner.
  • Board of Directors (BoD)
    The role of a board of directors (BoD) is to ensure the organisation's prosperity by collectively directing the affairs of the organisation. Overseeing rather than actively managing the day-to-day operation, the BoD is responsible for the organisation’s stewardship, and for meeting the interests of its shareholders and stakeholders. Effective BoD´s mostly fulfill two functions:
    1. Advisory: consult with management regarding strategic and operational direction of the organisation.
    2. Oversight: monitor the performance of an organisation and reduce agency costs.
    REFERENCES ProMetic, no year, Board of Directors Charter, ProMetic Life Sciences Inc., Canada Brefi Group, 2000, The Board of Directors – roles and responsibilities, Brefi Group Limited, UK Larcker, D. F., Tayan,B., 2011, Board of Directors: Duties & Liabilities, Stanford Graduate School of Business  
  • Bribery
    The offering, promising, giving, accepting or soliciting of an advantage as an inducement for an action which is illegal, unethical or a breach of trust. Inducements can take the form of gifts, loans, fees, rewards or other advantages (taxes, services, donations, etc.). REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • C
  • Civil society
    The arena, outside of the family, state and market where people associate to advance a common set of interests. Voluntary and community groups, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions and faith-based organisations commonly are included in this sphere, making the term broader than an NGO. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Clientelism
    An unequal system of exchanging resources and favours based on an exploitative relationship between a wealthier and/or more powerful ‘patron’ and a less wealthy and weaker ‘client’. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Code of conduct
    Statement of principles and values that establishes a set of expectations and standards for how an organisation, government body, company, affiliated group or individual will behave, including minimal levels of compliance and disciplinary actions for the organisation, its staff and volunteers. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Collusion
    A secret agreement between parties, in the public and/or private sector, to conspire to commit actions aimed to deceive or commit fraud with the objective of illicit financial gain. The parties involved often are referred to as ‘cartels’. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Complementary bidding
    Cooperating bidders agree to submit higher priced or deliberately defective bids to ensure the selection of the designated winner at inflated prices. REFERENCES IACRC, 2015, Collusive bidding schemes, Guide to Combating Corruption & Fraud in Development Projects, International Anti-corruption Resource Center (IACRC), http://guide.iacrc.org/potential-scheme-collusive-bidding/, accessed 15.10.2015
  • Compliance
    Refers to the procedures, systems or departments within public agencies or companies that ensure all legal, operational and financial activities are in conformity with current laws, rules, norms, regulations and standards. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Conflict of interest
    Situation where an individual or the entity for which they work, whether a government, business, media outlet or civil society organisation, is confronted with choosing between the duties and demands of their position and their own private interests. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Contract management
    Refers to the process of handling the organization’s relationship towards contractors once the service or product is contracted out. It includes the quality management of the project execution as well as handling payments towards contractors. In this toolbox’s context, water utilities or public institutions manage contracts with SMEs. This process is sensitive to issues of integrity as it involves the interactions between contractors and staff as well as compliant behaviour of contractors.
  • Contractor
    The organisation that is awarded a contract and that executes the project. In the setup assumed for the toolbox, contractors can be SMEs.
  • Conventions
    International and regional agreements signed or formally adopted through ratification by multiple states that establish rules and standards on issues which are typically cross-border in nature and require a common approach for effective, multilateral cooperation. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Corporate governance
    Procedures and processes for how private sector organisations are directed, managed and controlled, including the relationships between, responsibilities of and legitimate expectations among different stakeholders (Board of Directors, management, shareholders and other interested groups). REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Corruption
    The abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Corruption can be classified as grand, petty and political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs. Also see ‘grand corruption’, ‘petty corruption’ and ‘political corruption’. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Customer
    The individual or organization that is buying and consuming water-related products and services. In the case of public institutions this also refers to the citizens/rights holders who legitimate the institution’s authority and to whom the public institution is accountable.
  • Customer relations
    Refers to the process of managing the organization’s relationship towards customers. It includes the delivery of products and services, handling payments from the customers and managing communication and participation of customers. In this toolbox’s context, all organizations manage the relationship towards their respective customer group. This process is sensitive to issues of integrity as it involves the interaction of staff and customers as well as compliant behaviour of customers.
  • D
  • Debarment
    Procedure where companies and individuals are excluded from participating or tendering projects. Governments and multilateral agencies use this process to publicly punish businesses, NGOs, countries or individuals found guilty of unethical or unlawful behaviour. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Disclosure
    Provision of information as required under law or in good faith, regarding activities of a private individual, public official, company or organisation. Information can include a political candidate’s assets, a company’s financial reports, an NGO’s donors or a whistleblower’s accusations. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • E
  • Embezzlement
    When a person holding office in an institution, organisation or company dishonestly and illegally appropriates, uses or traffics the funds and goods they have been entrusted with for personal enrichment or other activities. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Ethics
    Based on core values, a set of standards for conduct in government, companies and society that guides decisions, choices and actions. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • External regulation
    Refers to the regulatory framework that has an impact on the organization. It includes existing legislation as well as the dynamics of a changing framework set and enforced by institutions on different levels, i.e. international, national, regional etc. In this toolbox’s context, water utilities’ and SMEs’ activities are affected by external regulation. It is affecting issues of integrity as regulations can be set in the organization’s favour or not and can vary in their enforcement.
  • External risk driver
    An external risk driver describes the situation where an [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="515"]integrity[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] risk requires external actors to act illicitly themselves or to enable illicit actions of others. In other words, when a risk only exists due to an authority’s, [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="557"]contractor[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary]’s, [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="558"]bidder[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary]’s, [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="560"]customer[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary]’s, competitor’s or [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="555"]project owner[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary]’s behaviour, it is driven externally. For example, Delayed, reduced, or refused payments from the project owner describes a risk for [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="567"]SMEs [/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary]of a project owner misusing its power at the expense of the SME. This clearly is a risk with an external risk driver.
  • Extortion
    Act of utilising, either directly or indirectly, one’s access to a position of power or knowledge to demand unmerited cooperation or compensation as a result of coercive threats. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • F
  • Facilitation payments
    A small bribe, also called a ‘facilitating’, ‘speed’ or ‘grease’ payment; made to secure or expedite the performance of a routine or necessary action to which the payer has legal or other entitlement. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Favouritism
    Favouritism refers to the normal human inclination to prefer acquaintances, friends and family over strangers. When public (and private sector) officials demonstrate favouritism to unfairly distribute positions and resources, they are guilty of cronyism or nepotism, depending on their relationship with the person who benefits. REFERENCES U4, no year, Favouritism, U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre (U4), http://www.u4.no/glossary/favouritism/, accessed 13.01.2016  
  • Field staff (utilities)
    The individual members of the [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="564"]utility[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] 's staff that are assigned with the [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="1099"]operations & maintenance[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] of the utility. They are involved in [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="1098"]customer relations[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] as they are directly interacting with the [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="560"]customers[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] during connecting, disconnecting, repairing and meter reading among others.
  • Financial management
    Refers to the process of handling an organization’s money. It includes planning the organization’s activities in financial terms, accounting of all financial transactions as well as handling cash and assets. In this toolbox’s context, all organizations handle money. This process is sensitive to issues of integrity as money and assets are often the subject of acts of non-integrity and are crucial to the organization’s performance.
  • Fraud
    To cheat. The act of intentionally deceiving someone in order to gain an unfair or illegal advantage (financial, political or otherwise). Countries consider such offences to be criminal or a violation of civil law. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • G
  • Governance
    A concept that goes beyond the traditional notion of government to focus on the relationships between leaders, public institutions and citizens, including the processes by which they make and implement decisions. The term can also be applied to companies and NGOs. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Governance & controls
    Refers to steering the organization, which is often done by a governance body like a [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="554"]board of directors[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] or similar.. It includes, all internal regulations, guidelines, formal and informal structures as well as their enforcement and monitoring. In this toolbox’s context, all organizations have a need for governing and controlling their respective activities and structures. It is sensitive to issues of integrity as it sets the internal guidance for behaviour of staff, management and Board of Directors.
  • Grand corruption
    Acts committed at a high level of government that distort policies or the central functioning of the state, enabling leaders to benefit at the expense of the public good. See ‘corruption’, ‘petty corruption’ and ‘political corruption’. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • H
  • Human resources
    Refers to the process of managing the organization’s staff. It includes recruitment, assignment, promotion, compensation and working environment as well as disciplinary and functional leadership of employees. In this toolbox’s context, all organizations are dependent on their human resources. It is sensitive to issues of integrity as staff can act with integrity or not and can contribute towards more or less integrity within the organization.
  • I
  • Integrity
    Behaviours and actions consistent with a set of moral or ethical principles and standards, embraced by individuals as well as institutions, that create a barrier to corruption. See ‘ethics’. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Integrity Management (IM)
    Integrity management refers to the process within organizations or whole sectors of making [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="515"]integrity[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] a part of strategic plans, business models, and—most importantly—daily practices in order to reduce [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2167"]risks[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] and improve performance. The approach works with a business perspective of realizing performance opportunities and advantages that arise from improving integrity.
  • Integrity Management Coach (IMC)
    An Integrity Management Coach (IMC) is usually a freelance consultant or a person sourced from an external institution (e.g. in the field of capacity development). His/ her role is to facilitate and support the organization throughout the integrity change process. Capable IMCs are crucial to the success and sustainability of the integrity change process. IMCs need to be selected based on their availability and expertise, i.e. experience with the toolbox methodology.
  • Integrity risk
    A risk is the probability of damage, loss, or any other negative incidence that may compromise a water sector organization's ability to fulfil its mandate effectively and efficiently.1 Integrity risks are only one part of the overall risks that an organization faces. Organizations (and particularly companies from the [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="533"]private sector[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] ) also face other business risks such as foreign exchange risks or liquidity risks. These risks however will not be dealt with in the IM Toolbox. The integrity risks that are contained in the IM Toolbox can either describe the [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2069"]cause[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] that is leading to a malpractice (e.g. 'Unsatisfying employment conditions' making staff steal money), a [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2074"]consequence[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] that might occur due to a [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2072"]malpractice[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] (e.g. 'Poor performance of contractors' due to the use of low standard materials) or the malpractice itself (e.g. Customers of a utilitiy committing 'Bribery to postpone disconnections'). Risks can be caused by external actors behaving illicitly themselves or enabling illicit actions of others ([ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2078"]external driver[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] ) or members of the organization acting illicitly themselves or enabling illicit actions of others ([ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2076"]internal driver[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] ). REFERENCES 1. Business Dictionary, no year, Risk, Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/risk.html, accessed 13.01.2016
  • Integrity tool
    The integrity tools are strategies to avoid and manage [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2167"]risks[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] . They include both rather general management tools like standard operating procedures described from an integrity angle and explicit anti-[ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="498"]corruption[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] measures like blacklisting of contractors. The IM toolbox focusses on integrity tools that can be implemented by the organizations themselves, while some tools also include collaboration with other actor such as customers or contractors. When choosing a tool it has to be considered whether the risk is driven [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2076"]internally[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] or an [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2078"]externally[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary]. The risk of payroll fraud for instance is driven internally from weak control mechanisms in the [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="1101"]human resources[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] department and can be tackled by inspecting the staff to avoid falsified timesheets and ghost workers.The risk of a project owner breaching the payment terms however is driven externally and outside of the control of the organization that is being contracted. In the short run it can only be managed by financial plans taking into account delayed cash flows. In the longer run organizations can lower the risk for example through contract clauses protecting their rights or by cooperating with the media in an effort to publicly denounce project owners that are breaching payment terms and thus discouraging others from doing the same.   
  • Internal risk driver
    An internal risk driver describes the situation where an [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="515"]integrity[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] risk requires members of the organization to act illicitly themselves or to enable illicit actions of others. In other words, when a risk only exists due to the organization’s managers’, [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="554"]board[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] members’ or staff’s behaviour, it is driven internally. For example, the Misuse of key positions describes the risk of an organization’s member to illicitly utilize his or her discretionary power for personal gain. This is clearly a risk with an internal risk driver.
  • L
  • Lobbying
    Any activity carried out to influence a government or institution’s policies and decisions in favour of a specific cause or outcome. Even when allowed by law, these acts can become distortive if disproportionate levels of influence exist — by companies, associations, organisations and individuals. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Loser’s fee
    Competing contractors secretly agree that they will each include in their bid price an agreed additional sum of money representing the total estimated tender costs of all the competing contractors. Whichever contractor is awarded the contract will then divide this sum of money between all the unsuccessful contractors who will thereby recover their tender costs. REFERENCES IACRC, 2015, Collusive bidding schemes, Guide to Combating Corruption & Fraud in Development Projects, International Anti-corruption Resource Center (IACRC), http://guide.iacrc.org/potential-scheme-collusive-bidding/, accessed 15.10.2015
  • M
  • Market division
    The cooperating companies may divide markets or product lines and agree not to compete in each other’s territory, or to do only so through collusive measures, such as submitting complementary bids. REFERENCES IACRC, 2015, Collusive bidding schemes, Guide to Combating Corruption & Fraud in Development Projects, International Anti-corruption Resource Center (IACRC), http://guide.iacrc.org/potential-scheme-collusive-bidding/, accessed 15.10.2015
  • Money laundering
    The process of concealing the origin, ownership or destination of illegally or dishonestly obtained money by hiding it within legitimate economic activities. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • N
  • National integrity systems
    A holistic approach to analyse both the extent and causes of corruption in a particular country by looking at the system of checks and balances and institutional pillars that form a society, including the executive, legislature, judiciary, ombudsman, media, civil society and business sector. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Nepotism
    Form of [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="2332"]favouritism[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] based on acquaintances and familiar relationships whereby someone in an official position exploits his or her power and authority to provide a job or favour to a family member or friend, even though he or she may not be qualified or deserving. Also see [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="486"]‘clientelism’[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] . REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Non-government and community-based organizations (NGOs/CBOs)
    A large variety of players ranging from local and informal civil society actors to more formalized community-based organizations and NGOs. These organizations complement government activities and are involved in local level development, advocacy, action research and social mobilisation. They are important players and apart from their development work often provide a voice for the poor and marginal groups. REFERENCES GWP, 2013c, Civil society institutions and community based organisations (B1.09), ToolBox - Integrated Water Resources Management, Global Water Partnership (GWP), http://www.gwp.org/en/ToolBox/TOOLS/Institutional-Roles/Creating-an-Organisational-Framework/Civil-society-institutions-and-community-based-organisations/, accessed 24.11.2015
  • O
  • Offshore financial centres
    Countries or jurisdictions, some times called ‘fiscal paradises’ or ‘tax havens’, that provide financial services to non-residents on a disproportionate scale to the domestic economy as a result of financial incentives, such as minimum government interference and very low or zero tax rates. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Operations & maintenance
    Refers to the organization’s operative activities, essentially the provision of products and services as well as directly related support activities. It includes handling and maintaining the organization’s physical and intangible assets in order to deliver products and services. In this toolbox’s context, operations and maintenance is the core activity of all organizations. It is sensitive to issues of integrity as it involves direct interactions between staff and customers and other crunchpoints.
  • Oversight
    The process of independently monitoring and investigating — internally or externally — the operations and activities of a government agency, company or civil society organisation to ensure accountability and efficient use of resources. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • P
  • Pacts
    Voluntary agreement among different parties (i.e. businesses, government agencies, contract bidders) to formally commit to mutually-agreed ‘rules of the game’, including the refusal to engage in bribery and the promise to uphold human rights. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Patronage
    Form of favouritism in which a person is selected, regardless of qualifications or entitlement, for a job or government benefit because of political affiliations or connections. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Petty corruption
    Everyday abuse of entrusted power by low- and mid-level public officials in their interactions with ordinary citizens, who often are trying to access basic goods or services in places like hospitals, schools, police departments and other agencies. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Political contribution
    Any contribution, made in cash or in kind, to support a political cause. Examples include gifts of property or services, advertising or promotional activities endorsing a political party, and the purchase of tickets to fundraising events. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Political corruption
    Manipulation of policies, institutions and rules of procedure in the allocation of resources and financing by political decision makers, who abuse their position to sustain their power, status and wealth. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Political will
    Demonstration and commitment by political leaders to address the challenges facing society or to fulfil a political pledge, such as fighting corruption or increasing political participation, by pursuing the appropriate policy responses, including wide-spread reforms. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Private sector
    Any company, household and institution that is not controlled by the public sector and which is run for private profit. Private sector corruption is characterised by groups from this sector influencing decisions and actions that lead to abuses of entrusted power. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Procurement
    Refers to the process of contracting out a service or product to a bidder. It includes tendering a contract, handling bids, awarding a bidder and conclude a contract. In this toolbox’s context, water utilities and public institutions procure products and services from SMEs. This process is sensitive to issues of integrity as it affects the organization’s performance, both technically and financially.
  • Project execution
    Refers to the process of delivering products or services to a project owner. It includes the contractor’s side of handling a contract and is comprised of fulfilling the contracts specifications in terms of time, quantity and quality as well as managing the payments receivable from the project owner. In this toolbox’s context, SMEs are responsible for the project execution. This process is sensitive to issues of integrity as it involves staff’s work and interaction with project officers as well as the project owner’s compliance to contractual payment terms.
  • Project officer
    The individual staff member(s) of the project owner that is (are) in charge of the tendering process and managing the contract. This may often be 2 different individual staff members.
  • Project owner
    The organisation that is procuring a good or service, i.e. tendering, awarding and managing a contract. In the setup assumed for the toolbox, project owners can be utilities or public institutions.
  • Public institutions
    Statutory bodies with functions including policy-making, regulation, enforcement and operations. They can be responsible for the allocation of water rights, environmental management related to water use, water quality, land use planning and financial management of water resources. Regulatory bodies also have a function in setting prices and performance standards for water utilities (economic regulation). In some cases the same body undertakes regulation and enforcement; in others there is a separation. Operational bodies can have various mandates, e.g. to develop infrastructure, to monitor and manage data or to train sector professionals. When public institutions procure and manage contracts for goods and services with external contractors - i.e. during procurement and contract management - they are referred to as 'project owners'. REFERENCES GWP, 2013b, Regulatory bodies and enforcement agencies (B1.05), ToolBox - Integrated Water Resources Management, Global Water Partnership (GWP), http://www.gwp.org/en/ToolBox/TOOLS/Institutional-Roles/Creating-an-Organisational-Framework/Regulatory-bodies-and-enforcement-agencies/, accessed 24.11.2015
  • Public sector
    The government and its decentralised units — including the police, military, public roads and transit authorities, primary schools and healthcare system — that use public funds and provide services based on the motivation to improve citizens’ lives rather than to make a profit. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • R
  • Revolving door
    An individual who moves back and forth between public office and private companies, exploiting his/her period of government service for the benefit of the companies they used to regulate. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Risk type: Cause
    When an [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="515"]integrity[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] risk is a ‘Cause’, it describes a precondition for practices of non-integrity. In other words it enables the staff, [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="554"]board[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] or management of an organization or external actors to behave illicitly to the detriment of the organization’s interests. For example, Unsatisfying employment conditions can be a cause for Payroll fraud, which is an illicit practice. An employee who is unhappy with his or her remuneration, is more likely to tamper with his or her pay cheque in order to increase the salary.
  • Risk type: Consequence
    When an [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="515"]integrity[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] risk is a ‘Consequence’, it describes a negative impact of illicit behaviour by the staff, [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="554"]board[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] or management of an organization or by external actors. As an outcome of a malpractice, it is detrimental to the organization’s interest. For example, the illicit practice of Collusion between project officer and bidder might lead to Poor performance of contractors. When projects are contracted out to [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="558"]bidders[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] based on [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="486"]clientelism[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary], the awarded bidder is likely to neglect the contract specifications and as a consequence, delivers poor products or services to the [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="555"]project owner[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary].
  • Risk type: Practice
    When an [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="515"]integrity[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] risk is a ‘Practice’, it describes an illicit behaviour by the staff, [ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary glossary-id="554"]board[/ithoughts_tooltip_glossary-glossary] or management of an organization or external actors to the detriment of the organization’s interests. For example, an employee can commit Payroll fraud by tampering his or her pay cheques or creating a ghost worker. Here, the employee is conducting an act of non-integrity, i.e. a 'Practice' in integrity risk terms.
  • River basin organizations (RBOs)
    Specialised organizations set up by political authorities, or in response to stakeholder demands. RBOs deal with the water resource management issues in a river basin, a lake basin, or across an important aquifer. The focus here is the basin organizations that are domestic, not transcending state boundaries. REFERENCES GWP 2013d, River basin organisations (B1.04), ToolBox - Integrated Water Resources Management, Global Water Partnership, http://www.gwp.org/en/ToolBox/TOOLS/Institutional-Roles/Creating-an-Organisational-Framework/River-basin-organisations/, accessed 24.11.2015
  • Rule of law
    Legal and political systems, structures and practices that condition a government’s actions to protect citizens’ rights and liberties, maintain law and order, and encourage the effective functioning of the country. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • S
  • Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
    Private companies which provide a wide range of services and products within the water sector. These can be artisans, sanitation companies, manufacturers, construction contractors, consultants, drilling companies etc. and are mostly contracted by public institutions, water utilities or development organisations. When SMEs bid on a tendered contract, they are referred to as 'bidders' and when they are awarded the contract - during the project execution phase - they are referred to as 'contractors'. REFERENCES Hermann-Friede, J., Heeb, J. & Kropac, M., 2012, Water integrity: an opportunity for the private sector, Water Integrity Network and cewas, Germany
  • SME staff
    The individual member(s) of the contractor’s staff that is handling the bidding and project execution.
  • Solicitation
    The act of a person asking, ordering or enticing someone else to commit bribery or another crime. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • Standard
    A standard is a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. REFERENCES ISO, no year, Standards, International Organization for Standardization (ISO), http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards.htm, accessed 13.01.2016
  • State capture
    A situation where powerful individuals, institutions, companies or groups within or outside a country use corruption to shape a nation’s policies, legal environment and economy to benefit their own private interests. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • T
  • Test term
    This is a test of the tooltip glossary. Johannes and I are wondering how this works and whether this will then show up automatically on the glossary page.
  • Transparency
    Characteristic of governments, companies, organizations and individuals of being open in the clear disclosure of information, rules, plans, processes and actions. As a principle, public officials, civil servants, the managers and directors of companies and organizations, and board trustees have a duty to act visibly, predictably and understandably to promote participation and accountability. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin  
  • V
  • Very small scale water service providers
    Semi-formal, mostly community-based groups that primarily manage rural water schemes.
  • W
  • Water sector organizations
    All organizations – public, mixed, or private – that are active in the water sector such as water utilites, SMEs, public institutions, river basin organizations etc.
  • Water utilities
    Public, partially privatised or fully privatised organisations that provide water services, including water supply, sanitation and irrigation infrastructure as well as ecosystem protection. There are several types of water utilities, with varying levels of autonomy which affects the way they operate. In ascending order of autonomy, the main types of water utilities are: Government departments (within a ministry or as a separate ministry), special water units (reporting to a minister or mayor), public or parastatal companies, ‘commercialized’ water utilities (commercial companies with financing capacity fully or partially owned by government) and private companies. When water utilities procure and manage contracts for goods and services with external contractors - i.e. during procurement and contract management - they are referred to as 'project owners'. REFERENCES GWP, 2013a, Strengthening the public sector water utilities (B1.07), ToolBox - Integrated Water Resources Management, Global Water Partnership, http://www.gwp.org/en/learn/iwrm-toolbox/Institutional_Arrangements/Water_Supply_and_Sanitation_Services/Public_sector_water_utilities/  accessed 21.06.2017
  • Whistle blowing
    The sounding of an alarm by an employee, director, or external person, in an attempt to reveal neglect or abuses within the activities of an organisation, government body or company (or one of its business partners) that threaten public interest, its integrity and reputation. REFERENCES TI, 2009, The Anti-Corruption Plain Language Guide,  Transparency International (TI), Berlin
  • X
  • XYZ Doohickey Company
    A pretend company created just to test this toolbox. There is no XYZ Doohickey Company nor are there any employees.