A risk is the probability of damage, loss, or any other negative incidence that may compromise a water sector organization’s ability to fulfil its mandate effectively and efficiently.1 Integrity risks are only one part of the overall risks that an organization faces. Organizations (and particularly companies from the private sector ) also face other business risks such as foreign exchange risks or liquidity risks. These risks however will not be dealt with in the IM Toolbox.
The integrity risks that are contained in the IM Toolbox can either describe the cause that is leading to a malpractice (e.g. ‘Unsatisfying employment conditions‘ making staff steal money), a consequence that might occur due to a malpractice (e.g. ‘Poor performance of contractors‘ due to the use of low standard materials) or the malpractice itself (e.g. Customers of a utilitiy committing ‘Bribery to postpone disconnections‘).
Risks can be caused by external actors behaving illicitly themselves or enabling illicit actions of others (external driver ) or members of the organization acting illicitly themselves or enabling illicit actions of others (internal driver ).
1. Business Dictionary, no year, Risk, Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/risk.html, accessed 13.01.2016