The integrity tools are strategies to avoid and manage risks . They include both rather general management tools like standard operating procedures described from an integrity angle and explicit anti-corruption measures like blacklisting of contractors. The IM toolbox focusses on integrity tools that can be implemented by the organizations themselves, while some tools also include collaboration with other actor such as customers or contractors.
When choosing a tool it has to be considered whether the risk is driven internally or an externally. The risk of payroll fraud for instance is driven internally from weak control mechanisms in the human resources department and can be tackled by inspecting the staff to avoid falsified timesheets and ghost workers.The risk of a project owner breaching the payment terms however is driven externally and outside of the control of the organization that is being contracted. In the short run it can only be managed by financial plans taking into account delayed cash flows. In the longer run organizations can lower the risk for example through contract clauses protecting their rights or by cooperating with the media in an effort to publicly denounce project owners that are breaching payment terms and thus discouraging others from doing the same.