Annotated Water Integrity Scan (AWIS)

Low-cost participatory methodology to assess Transparency, Accountability, and Participation for service delivery in a given water sub-sector.

Currently adapted for WASH, rural WASH, school WASH.



The Annotated Water Integrity Scan (AWIS) is a tool that has been designed to quickly assess the integrity situation in the water sector through a one day multi-stakeholder workshop. AWIS was developed by the Water Integrity Network (WIN) together with IRC. The tool focuses on three pillars of integrity: Transparency, Accountability and Participation (TAP). AWIS assesses TAP for five risk areas through scores that are complemented with annotations. The annotations are qualitative information to explain the scores as discussed among workshop participants with knowledge about the water sector and anti-corruption legislation. Results of the AWIS assessment are a basis for prioritization of water integrity action.




AWIS is a tool to:

  • Give an overview of the state of water integrity and map potential integrity risks in five main risk areas of a given water sub-sector (Policy and legislation, Regulation, Investment projects and programmes, Service provision, Anti-corruption framework).
  • Increase awareness about water integrity (TAP) to stimulate action resulting from constructive and solution-oriented dialogue among different stakeholders.
  • Identify priority areas for action by reflecting on the outcome of the AWIS and the experiences of different stakeholder groups to increase integrity and strengthen the water governance framework.
  • Document change over time (through repeated applications).

AWIS makes it possible to introduce integrity as an aspect of a project without antagonizing stakeholders and helps raise awareness on contrasting points of view and unexpected risks.



AWIS is a means to gradually build a common perspective on potential issues—not to establish facts. As such, AWIS is meant to be embedded in ongoing initiatives in the water sector and cannot be a stand-alone activity. It differs from other qualitative assessments such as focused group discussions by emphasizing dialogue, the search for common ground, and the identification of solutions and priorities for action.

AWIS is not a one-size-fits-all-tool. Adapting indicators and risk areas assessed in an AWIS workshop to the local context and specificities of the sub-sector can make results more relevant.




AWIS is developed in a workshop by a group of eight to twelve experts familiar with the specific water sub-sector and progress with anti-corruption measures. Participants assign scores for TAP in five critical risk areas:

  • Policy and legislation
  • Regulation
  • Investment projects and programmes
  • Service provision
  • Anti-corruption framework

The average scores provide the starting point to develop qualitative annotations from a discussion among participants. Clear and simplified definitions of Transparency, Accountability, and Participation (TAP) are used to facilitate the scoring and annotation process.

Implementation steps are as follows:

  1. Participants anonymously assign scores from 1-3 (1=low, 2=medium and 3=high level) to T, A and P for each risk area. Results are given to the facilitator and computed to obtain the average score for each of the TAP levels.
  2. The results from the scoring are shared with the participants. Experience has shown that scores vary among participants and therefore the group is asked to provide annotations for the level above and below the score. The group provides detailed comments for each score. These annotations explain why a higher or lower score could be considered and thereby justify the average score. If for example an average risk score is 2.4 the group is asked to give arguments why the score could be closer to 3. Then the participants provide arguments why the score could be closer to 2. Participants thus do not have to defend their own score, but can freely deliberate about the risk situation.
  3. The scores and the annotations provide the basis to identify areas for priority action. The participants may already identify some actions to be taken as an input for the wider stakeholder discussion of the results of the AWIS.
  4. As a follow-up to the workshop, an AWIS report presenting the results of the scoring, the annotations and some suggestions for action, is shared with a larger group of stakeholders. Sharing the report enhances the awareness of the situation and initiates further action.


AWIS has been adapted and used in Kenya in the WASH sector, Benin in the rural WASH sector, and India for a school WASH assessment.



AWIS Manual


Facilitation Guidelines AWIS




Last updated 11 February 2019

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