National integrity survey: TAP risk map

Framework based on TAP principles to analyse the integrity of relationships behind water and sanitation service delivery


The TAP risk map was developed by Transparency International and its national chapters in Kenya, Ghana and Senegal to gain a better understanding of the integrity of water service provision. The tool identifies relevant stakeholders and assesses the integrity of their relationships in terms of transparency, accountability and participation (TAP).

The tool generates, structures, and assesses information on:

  • The actors involved in water supply systems
  • The relationships between the stakeholders and the main water provider(s)
  • The risk levels in regard to TAP in the relationships between each group of actors

The results are validated with each stakeholder group and are then visualized in a map to communicate the results and to identify priority areas for action to improve water integrity.

The TAP risk map generates a mix of quantitative (through surveys) and qualitative (through group discussions) information to develop a better understanding of the checks and balances that are in place between the different stakeholders of water supply systems in one or several case study areas.



The objectives of the TAP risk map are to:

  • Identify and assess the status of integrity in the relationships of different stakeholders in local water supply systems;
  • Raise awareness on the impacts of corruption on performance of water supply systems;
  • Highlight roles and responsibilities of water users and providers;
  • Provide key inputs for evidence-based advocacy and to initiate practical improvement initiatives.



It is important to realise that case study findings may not be representative for the whole country but they provide good contextual and qualitative data that indicate the level of integrity and therewith also provide insight in the risk of corruption.

The exercise is best carried out by a third-party organization with enough support to reach key stakeholders and with experienced in carrying out research.




Based on stakeholder specific surveys and group discussions in a selected area, water providers’ relationships with users and intermediaries are mapped and assessed in terms of transparency, accountability and participation (TAP).

The tool implementation steps are:

  1. One or more areas are identified for the case studies. These areas should be fairly representative for the situation in the community
    in terms of presences of water supply systems and formal and informal providers to assess the range of problems that may occur. An initial scoping visit to consult with stakeholders will help to identify adequate locations.
  2. To assess TAP in service provision with different stakeholders key informant interviews are conducted using a set of stakeholder specific questionnaires. The questionnaires comprise mostly closed questions. The survey can be complemented with focus group discussions.
  3. The implementing organization cross-checks the results comparing the answers from the different respondent groups.
  4. Findings are shared with the different actors to generate feedback, validate the results and develop inputs for action to improve the integrity of water supply in the community.
  5. For each type of water supply system the actors are visualized in a map and the TAP risks of each of their relationships is assessed. The risk map always relates to the main water provider and only if the informal sector resells water from a formal provider the two will be included in the same risk map. A summary of the results of the case studies, indicating risk levels of TAP in the relationships of the different stakeholders, are also visualized in this map. Three risk levels of TAP are established using the colours red (high risk), yellow (medium risk) and green (low risk).


Example map from TI’s National Integrity Study in Kenya (2011)

Transparency International chapters have developed TAP maps for water service provision for national integrity surveys in Kenya, Ghana, and Senegal as part of the TISDA programme.



Case study: Kenya National Water Integrity Study

Last updated 10 January 2018

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