Recruitment and promotion policy
Rules for merit-based recruitment and career development.
Recruitment and career development need to be based on open and fair competition and determined solely on the basis of merit, i.e. relative ability, knowledge, skills and upright behaviour and not be a result of favours, bribes, family or party relations or friendship. To institutionalise merit-based recruitment and promotion, respective guidelines must be developed and enforced.
PURPOSE & LINK TO INTEGRITY
This ensures equal access to employment for all and makes sure that the best person, in terms of knowledge, skills, experience and aptitude, is chosen for each position.1 Promoting and appointing the best performing/qualified employees can enhance the organisation’s overall performance. It further enhances staff motivation as the prospect of a higher job is linked directly to their performance. Job security linked to the employees’ performance increases the loyalty and quality of work delivered by them. Guidelines and policies can help to guide the process by setting out criteria and standards.1,2
Performance and integrity are closely linked. If an employee engages in corrupt practices, the quality of their work is directly affected. Prioritising merit and staff performance as the basis for promotions and appointments of jobs and tasks will implicitly incentivise ethical behaviour. Appointments and promotions according to favours, bribes and / or ethical considerations lead to inefficient work (the best staff are not selected), non-committed staff (as the promotions are not transparent) and a higher risk of prosecution due to non-ethical staff in the middle management. Improper recruitment can also result in situations where an organisation is legally bound to poorly performing staff in the long run. An organisation may not be in a position to easily cancel their contract, or can face lawsuits from dismissed staff.
- Does your organisation have a clear organisational structure and job descriptions in place from which recruitment and promotion criteria can be derived? (Also check tool Job descriptions)
- Does your promotion policy incorporate reward for good performance and are performance measurements in place? (Also check tool Staff performance & satisfaction monitoring)
For appointments and promotions to be based on merit, the following aspects should be considered.
- In the job application or promotion, certain requirements can be listed. These requirements can be checked by the human resources department. Only approved candidates can be selected.
- Each decision should be made by two people (“four eyes principle”). Private interviews negate the whole system of transparency and accountability .3
- Quality of work can be evaluated using a performance checklist and / or by interviewing the direct superior as well as other staff.
- Formulate a written report on why someone was chosen and the others not (e.g. advantages and disadvantages of the different candidates).
- Link the HR department’s objectives with the overall performance of the organisation.
To enhance transparency, processes and criteria for appointments and promotions should be documented and shared in a guideline or policy document. Recruitment guidelines could describe the recruitment process as follows:1
- Review of vacancy: When a post becomes vacant it will be reviewed by the manager.
- Recruitment request form: When the decision to recruit for the post has been made, a recruitment request form will be completed by the service co-ordinator, finance officer and signed by the manager before the recruitment process is commenced.
- The job description and person specification: Job descriptions and person specifications will be reviewed and prepared for each post to ensure that they accurately and adequately reflect the skills, qualities, experience and attributes required for the post. As roles, duties and responsibilities change over time, where an advertisement, job description and / or person specification are already in existence, they must be checked and updated to ensure they clearly reflect the current requirements of the job. Job descriptions and personnel specifications and advertisements must be approved by the manager and or [responsible] coordinator.
- Advertisement: Vacancies will be advertised as openly and as widely as possible. The advertisement will state the overall purpose of the job and give clear guidance on the required method of application.
- Shortlisting: Shortlisting will be undertaken by a minimum of two people and referenced against the person specification.
- Interview and selection: Interviews will be undertaken by a minimum of two people and referenced against the person specification.
- Reference checks: References will be taken up.
- Vetting: If applicable, posts are subject to vetting prior to commencement.
KEY GUIDING DOCUMENTS
NHPA, no year, Merit System Principles, National Health Performance Authority (NHPA), UK
Cork CIL, 2012, Recruitment Policy and Procedure. Policy and Guidelines, Cork Centre for Independent Living (Cork CIL), Ireland
Australian Human Rights Commission, no year, Best practice guidelines for recruitment and selection, Australian Human Rights Commission, http://www.humanrights.gov.au/best-practice-guidelines-recruitment-and-selection, accessed 29.10.2015
UNDP, WGF, 2007, Improving water governance in Kenya through the human rights-based approach, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Water Governance Facility (WGF), USA
TI, no year, Preventing corruption in humanitarian operations. Pocket guide of good practices, Transparency International (TI), Germany
UCL, 2013, Recruitment and Selection Policy, University College London (UCL), http://www.ucl.ac.uk/hr/docs/recruitment.php, accessed 29.10.2015
APSEA, no year, How to Retain Key Staff in Competitive Environment, Association of Professional Societies in East Africa (APSEA), Kenya
Business Dictionary, no year, Job Security, Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/job-security.html, accessed 29.10.2015
Public Service Commission, no year, A toolkit on recruitment and selection, Public Service Commission, Republic of South Africa
Quah, J. S. T., 2006, Preventing police corruption in Singapore. The role of recruitment, training and socialisation, The Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration
- Cork CIL, 2012, Recruitment Policy and Procedure. Policy and Guidelines, Cork Centre for Independent Living (Cork CIL), Ireland
- Australian Human Rights Commission, no year, Best practice guidelines for recruitment and selection, Australian Human Rights Commission, http://www.humanrights.gov.au/best-practice-guidelines-recruitment-and-selection, accessed 29.10.2015
- ICPC, no year, Vetting Policy for Kenya (Draft), International Centre for Policy and Conflict (ICPC), Kenya