WIN has been working in Mozambique since 2009, when it focused on promoting transparency, accountability and participation in national level budget allocation as well as local level investment decisions, infrastructure development and service delivery in the water and sanitation sector. This has been done in collaboration with lead implementing partner Helvetas Mozambique through the Swiss-funded Multi-Country Water Integrity Programme.
Since 2012, water integrity work in Mozambique has included increasing capacities at national and local level to monitor integrity of investments in water supply and sanitation services. A key achievement in this regard has been that the Budget Monitoring Forum (BMF) is now successfully advocating for strengthened parliamentary review and external audits of hidden debts, and is protecting the WASH sector from budget cuts.
In Mozambique, the coverage of water supply currently is estimated to be at an average of 59.6% and 40% in sanitation. 90% of illnesses are estimated to be due to poor sanitation conditions. In urban areas, the greatest challenges lie in maintaining operational cost recovery and making steady progress on capital cost recovery. In rural areas, expanding access and ensuring sustainable access to water and sanitation remain the biggest challenge. In both rural and urban areas, progress in terms of sanitation is stagnant.
In Mozambique, there are many different actors involved in providing water and sanitation services. Whilst an independent regulatory agency exists, which reports directly to the Council of Ministers, there are also a large number of small private operators in the water sector, which supply water to approximately 20% of the population. These private utilities supply water on a commercial basis but outside the formal and regulated framework. Coordination between key actors in the water sector is a challenge.
There is a lack of transparency as to how public funds are being managed and spent and demanding accountability or mentioning corruption is easily politicized. This hampers citizen participation.
Hansjoerg Eberle/CC BY 3.0