• Integrity Walls: TAP-A

    A guiding framework to think about integrity systematically, and plan concrete actions focusing on the pillars of integrity: Transparency, Accountability, Participation, and Anti-corruption.

The Integrity Wall is based on the idea that we can all build up Transparency, Accountability, and Participation, and strengthen Anti-corruption (TAP-A) mechanisms at different levels, to cement integrity, and keep out corruption in the sector. In combination, these four pillars create a framework for integrity.

The Integrity Wall is adapted from the Water Integrity Global Outlook 2016.

The Water Integrity Global Outlook 2016 (WIGO) emphasizes the need for transparency, accountability, participation, and anti-corruption measures (TAP-A) to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly SDG 6 on water and sanitation.



The first step in deciding how to implement Transparency, Accountability, Participation, and Anti-corruption measures and which ones, is to have a clear picture of the most pressing integrity risks in the specific context of your initiative.

An open discussion on integrity and corruption, and a preliminary assessment can go a long way in setting momentum for action and building a joint understanding of major risks. Simple and cost-effective tools like an Annotated Water Integrity Scan (AWIS) can help this process. There are also many other methodologies for integrity assessments and monitoring.


Examining risk areas prone to corruption

It’s also possible to start examining processes that are typically prone to corruption. Procurement, for example, is a process that is vulnerable to corruption for water projects of all sizes, and for large-scale infrastructure projects in particular. Strict procedures and independent monitoring are key. Tools to consider when focusing on procurement, include integrity pacts or simply procurement guidelines.


Thinking TAP-A at different levels

An integrity framework like the TAP-A can be applied and used to examine corruption and integrity issues and improvements at any level: for individual water sector organizations, for networks of organizations, for a sub-sector as a whole, for a region, river basin, or country… It’s important to consider the right tools and get a strong overview of the most pressing integrity risks in each context.

For individual organizations, and utilities in particular, the Integrity Management Toolbox can be a supporting tool to discuss integrity risks and set up processes to mitigate them. The Toolbox describes possible integrity risks a typical organization may face, including malpractice or wrongdoing related to accounting, human resources, and general operations. The Toolbox has been adapted for use also by River Basin Organizations.

For networks of organizations, and multi-stakeholder partnerships in particular, the Water Stewardship Integrity Framework contains guiding questions and examples of typical integrity risks and tools.