INTEGRITY FOR ESSENTIAL SERVICES
By 2050, nearly seven out of ten people in the world will live in urban areas and the number of people living in informal settlements is likely to double. In cities around the world, the water and sanitation situation is already dire: over a third of the urban population lives without adequate sanitation and threats from climate change are increasing.
It’s essential. Cities need clean water and sanitation. And clean water and sanitation need integrity, for city residents, city resilience, and city reputation.
Corruption in water and sanitation has a tremendous impact on the lives and well-being of city residents and on the reputation of cities and water and sanitation sector stakeholders. The issue may seem daunting but evidence from around the world shows that change is possible. And change is essential.
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3 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION
SERVICE IN INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS
DIFFERENT FORMS OF CORRUPTION
Inadequate service is a reflection of profound social and institutional exclusion, and a deep failure of integrity.
Specfically addressing sextortion and petty corruption is about prioritising and benefiting the most vulnerable.
Despite benefits for health and economy, urban sanitation is the under-regulated poor relation in WASH services.
PRACTICAL CASES FOR URBAN WASH STAKEHOLDERS
Building on the Water Integrity Global Outlook (WIGO) 2016, WIGO 2021 brings together examples of how integrity champions -mayors, regulators, water and sanitation professionals, civil society, funders, the media- are building integrity in cities step by step, to improve water and sanitation services and leave no one behind.
Chapter 6 - Taking action at the city level ( > p125)
Chapter 6 focuses on what municipal and other local governments in charge of cities and towns can do to advance integrity in water and sanitation. Municipal governments have the responsibility for water and sanitation service provision in many countries, directly or through a municipally controlled utility. And they constitute the level of formal government closest to urban dwellers. They are key
actors in fighting corruption, both internally and in their relationship with other actors. This chapter shares useful municipal and local government experiences from around the world, and presents recommendations for action.
Chapter 7 – What can national governments do? ( > p153)
Chapter 7 considers what national governments can do to advance integrity in urban water and sanitation. “National governments” primarily means national leadership and key bodies in the national integrity system including the ministry of finance, anti-corruption and audit bodies, and relevant line ministries including the ministry of water, sanitation and similar.
There are multiple measures which can be taken at the national level to advance integrity. These include implementing anti-corruption strategies, strengthening national procurement systems, and the development of institutional and policy frameworks that support transparency and accountability in urban water and sanitation. WASH actors should reach out to other relevant bodies to be part of broader anti-corruption efforts e.g. around public finance and procurement, and focus on strengthening policies and practices within the sector where the broader context isn’t supportive.
Chapter 8 – What can sector regulators do? ( > p169)
Chapter 8 considers what water and sanitation regulators, both independent regulators, and regulatory departments within ministries, can do to advance integrity. The regulator’s role traditionally relates to ensuring that resources are equitably allocated, that services are of appropriate quality, and that tariffs are both socially fair and financially viable. Regulators also often play a key role in ensuring water use efficiency and in controlling sanitation-related environmental
pollution. Given the scope of their functions, regulators play a significant role in combatting corruption.
The focus here is mainly on regulation of urban water and sanitation utilities; but regulation may also extend to other service providers, including municipal sanitation departments and small-scale private sector actors.
Chapter 9 – What can utilities do? ( > p185)
Chapter 9 focuses on what utilities can do to advance integrity in urban water and sanitation. Many utility managers are passionately committed to eradicating corruption and reaching fully equitable coverage, and such individuals can create powerful “islands of integrity" even within contexts of systemic corruption. The chapter outlines ways in which utilities can introduce specific measures for combatting corruption, and for supporting equity and integrity.
Chapter 10 – The role of international funders and agencies ( > p196)
Chapter 10 considers the role of international funders and agencies (such as international NGOs) in advancing integrity in urban water and sanitation. Integrity issues are of significant concern to development funders and NGOs, both in relation to external partners with whom they work, and internal to their own organisations.
Unfortunately, these groups may be wary of addressing corruption and integrity issues with partner organisations they support because of a fear that raising these issues may result in harassment or incountry access being shut down. This chapter outlines ways in which development funders and NGOs can assess their practices and strive for extensive and committed integrity action.
Chapter 11 – What can residents, civil society and the media do? ( > p207)
Chapter 11 considers the role of urban residents, civil society and the media in advancing integrity in urban water and sanitation. In countries with entrenched systemic corruption from the highest levels of power down, institutions are unlikely to introduce radical change. Corruption is fundamental to systems of power. Even in countries without systemic corruption, corrupt institutions and
corrupt public officials may not change their behaviour unless forced to do so by public pressure. In order to achieve integrity in urban water and sanitation, and to achieve decent services for all, citizen power is essential: individual residents, civil society organisations (CSOs) and the media can work together to drive change from the ground up.
This chapter documents inspirational experiences, and outlines ways in which residents themselves can fight corruption and demand their basic right to decent water and sanitation services.
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